Grammar in levels -Everyday speaking and listening situations.

Here I break down some grammatical categories in English that you may find useful, I have put them in levels of English competency, skill and proficiency, this is a guide and it’s not a comprehensive list, however, you may find this practical to see what might be important you depending on your fluency level and overall proficiency in English.

Beginner Level:

Subject pronouns: I am happy. You are tall. He is intelligent.
Object pronouns: She gave me a book. They saw him at the park. We invited her to the party.
The verb ‘be’ – present tense: I am a student. You are my friend. She is a doctor.
Demonstratives: This book is interesting. That car is fast. These apples are delicious. Those houses are big.
Basic prepositions: I live in a house. He is at the park. She went to the store.
Articles: I have a dog. An apple is healthy. The cat is sleeping.
Singular/plural nouns: The cat is small. The cats are playful.
Possessive adjectives: My car is blue. Your house is beautiful. His book is interesting.
Possessive ‘s’: John’s car is red. The dog’s tail is wagging.
Likes and dislikes: I like swimming. He dislikes broccoli.

Elementary Level:

The verb ‘be’ – present tense questions and negatives: Are you tired? No, I am not tired.
Present simple: I walk to school. She walks to work.
Present continuous: I am walking to the park. She is walking with her friend.
Adverbs of frequency: Sometimes I go to the movies. He often plays soccer. I never eat spicy food.
Possessive pronouns: The book is mine. Is this pen yours?
Past simple: I played soccer yesterday. They went to the beach.
Like + -ing: I like swimming. She likes dancing.
Want, like, and would like: I want a new phone. She likes chocolate. Would you like some tea?
Telling the time: It is 9 o’clock. He arrived at 2:30.

Pre-Intermediate Level:

Past simple, regular and irregular verbs: I studied English last night. She ate dinner at a restaurant.
Past continuous: She was going to the store when it started raining. They were walking in the park.
Conjunctions (so, because, but, although): I am tired, so I will go to bed early. She didn’t come because she was busy.
Future forms: I’m going to visit my grandparents. She will call you later.
Present perfect: I have seen that movie before. They have lived here for five years.
Comparatives: This book is more interesting than that one. He is less tall than his brother.
Superlatives: This is the most delicious cake I’ve ever had. She is the least talkative person in the group.
Modals of obligation: You have to finish your homework. She mustn’t forget to bring her ID.
‘Used to’: I used to play the piano. They used to live in the city.
‘so/neither’ + auxiliaries: I like coffee, and she does too. He hasn’t seen the movie, and neither have I.

Intermediate Level:

Present perfect vs continuous: I have been studying English for two years. She has worked here since 2010.
Past simple vs continuous vs perfect: I studied English. She was studying when I called her. They had already finished.
Future forms: I’m going to travel next month. She will be working on a new project.
Usually vs used to: I usually wake up early. She used to live in Paris.
Reported speech: “I’m going to the park,” he said. He said he was going to the park.
Passives: The church was painted by Michelangelo. The book was written by an unknown author.
Relative clauses: The girl who is sitting over there is my sister. The house that I bought is beautiful.
Modals of obligation and deduction: You must study for the test. He may be late for the meeting.
Can, could, be able to: I can swim. She could play the guitar. They were able to finish the project.
First conditional and future time clauses: If I pass the exam, I’ll celebrate. We’ll go to the beach when it gets warmer.
Second conditional: If I were famous, I’d give money to charity.

Upper-Intermediate Level:

The…the… + comparatives: The more you practice, the better you become. The earlier you arrive, the better seats you get.
Using adjectives as nouns: The rich are privileged. The poor need assistance.
Adjective order: I have a big round table. She has long curly hair.
Narrative tenses: He told me a story about his trip to Japan. She was cooking dinner when the phone rang.
Adverbs and adverbial phrases: She speaks English fluently. They arrived early in the morning.
Passive structures: It is said that he is a talented musician. He is believed to be the best in his field.
Future perfect and continuous: By next year, I will have graduated. They will be travelling during the summer.
Reporting verbs: He recommended reading that book. She threatened to quit her job. They advised us to be careful.
Third conditional: If I had known, I would have come to the party. She would have passed the test if she had studied.
Past modals, ‘would rather’ and ‘had better’: I should have studied more. She would rather stay home. You’d better hurry.
Gerunds and infinitives: I enjoy swimming. She decided to study abroad.
Used to, be used to, get used to: I used to live in the city. She is used to the noise now. I’ll get used to the new schedule.
Structures after wish: I wish I had more time. She wishes she could travel more.
Quantifiers: I have a few books. She has many friends.

Advanced Level:

Inversion for emphasis: Little did he know that the dog had escaped.
Linkers: Although it was raining, we went for a walk. Nonetheless, he finished the project on time.
Mixed conditionals: If her eyesight were better, she would have seen the squirrel.
Cleft sentences: The reason why I’ve come is to discuss the issue. The thing that annoys me most is bad manners.
Compound nouns: She bought a second-hand car. He is a high school teacher.
‘So’ and ‘such’: She is so talented. It was such a beautiful day.
Gerunds and infinitives: I enjoy swimming. She decided to study abroad.
Phrasal verbs: Please go up the stairs. He went in and closed the door.
Unreal uses of past tenses: It’s time we left. Suppose we opened our own shop.
Uses of the verb ‘get’: I need to get my hair cut. She got promoted.
Participle phrases: The horse, trotting up to the fence, hopes you have a carrot.
Passive and active voice: The book was written by the author. The author wrote the book.


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